2020 BK short course

This content is protected, please login and enroll course to view this content!
72 replies
  1. Katie-H
    Katie-H says:

    Hi team!

    My name’s Katie, I manage Marrawuddi out in Kakadu National Park, I’ve been out here for nearly four years and am ashamed of how little Kunwinjku I know. Though I know many words and few sentences, I’m eager to learn more and communicate better with bininj I’m close to and work with.

    I haven’t learnt much in the first unit, as much of it I already know, the only thing I may comment on being new to me is scrubbing up on my english grammar – apparently rather shocking at it. Alas! Will try and learn the linguistic terms to wrap my head around understanding Kunwinjku better.

    Looking forward to the course!

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Welcome Katie! Don’t get too caught up in the grammatical terms, they’re there to help you understand the Kunwinjku but not to make you learn the language of grammar.

      I hope you get to practise what you’re learning with your Bininj colleagues.

  2. Shay-W
    Shay-W says:

    Howdy folks
    I’m Shay, Djurrubu Ranger Coordinator on Mirarr Country in Kakadu National Park.
    Turns out I know nothing of the rules of my native tongue, much less the Kunwinjku vernacular. That last page was very informative.

    I moved here from Gunbalanya where the dialect is only slightly different and still I know very little of the local language/s and abhor my own ignorance so I’m here to end that.

    Ma, bobo

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Shay,
      We’ll try to incorporate some Kundjeyhmi into the course in later units, but I’m sure whatever you learn of Kunwinjku will be appreciated by your Bininj colleagues.

      See my comment to Katie above about not letting grammar get in the way of your language learning.

  3. Jamie-M
    Jamie-M says:

    Hi everyone,
    I’m Jamie and I’ve spent much of the past decade working with Yolŋu in East Arnhem Land and have become fluent in Djambarrpuyŋu (one of the Yolŋu Matha languages).
    Last year i started working with Bininj out on Bolmo country at Marlkawo homeland, working with Children’s Ground.

    i did a bit of language learning last year so there’s nothing particularly surprising yet, but it does remind me of some of the structural similarities to Yolŋu Matha, but also the difference in the use of prefixes to assign meaning rather than suffixes which are a large part of Yolŋu Matha.

    Mah, Bobo,

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Jamie,

      I’m sure your knowledge of Djambarrpuyŋu will help with speaking and understanding an Aboriginal language, but yes, they are very different. Amazing that languages only a few hundred kilometres apart can be so vastly different, even from different language families.

  4. samantha-m
    samantha-m says:

    Hi Everyone,
    I’m Sam and I work with the Kakadu Board of Management.
    I have previously lived at Uluru and was taught the basics of Pitjanjatjara by local traditional owners while there and would love to be able to communicate better in language with our Board members here on Park.
    As most have noted above, my knowledge on English grammar is also appalling!

    Look forward to learning a lot more!

    Mah, Bobo

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Sam, great to have you in the course.

      I’m sure the board members will appreciate your efforts at learning some of their language. Even knowing a bit about how the language is structured can help you understand some of the differences between Bininj and Balanda perspectives.

      I look forward to getting back out to Kakadu soon

  5. Louise-M
    Louise-M says:

    I’m Louise and I work at the Catholiccare NT office in Jabiru. I’ve been wanting to learn some basic skills in language, as I’m picking up on bits and pieces now I’ve been in Kakadu for a few years.
    Looking forward to it, cheers!

  6. Geoff-B
    Geoff-B says:

    Hi All,
    Greetings from Ngunnawal country, Canberra – or Canbrrrr as we call it at this time of year. I used to do some work with Djelk/Bawinanga Rangers in Maningrida in a past life and picked up some Bininj Kunwok while I was there but always wished I’d learned more. I would love to return and do more work up there at some stage. Likewise, I learnt how little I know about English grammar. I learnt some new words and phrases, and also that my Gurr-goni skin name Godjok equates to Nawamud in Kunwinjku. Slightly daunting – teaching an old duruk new tricks – but looking forward to the learning experience.

  7. Denise-H
    Denise-H says:

    Hi Wonderful People
    I work at Red Lily Health in Jabiru and casually at Jabiru Pool as a life guard and Kakadu National Park. I have lived in Jabiru for nearly 3 years and moved with my family from Margaret River. Personally I am disappointed that I know very very little of local language, and want to learn so I can connect with community residents (reading why warriors lie down and down made this even stronger for me to learn). I believe any country you go to its important to learn some basics and so why not here!
    I too have discovered my lack of English Grammar, so this has been enlightening for me. I struggle with pronouncing many language words, not knowing if the first letter is silent or the 2nd.
    PS The Skin name I have chosen is Nga-wamud. I look forward to practicing with many of you.

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Denise, love your motivation to connect with people through learning their language.

      As we’ll see in the next unit, there are no ‘silent’ letters in Kunwinjku (unlike English) but some of the letters don’t match up with the English letters which can be a bit confusing.

      Also note that your skin name should be Ngalwamud, with Ngal- the female prefix and Na- the male one.


  8. Jane-B
    Jane-B says:

    Kamak! My name is Jane Blackwood, recently employed as Ranger Manager at Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation. I am moving to Jabiru next week and will start with the Ranger team, along with Shay – W after my quarantine period is over. Always a good opportunity to learn a language with the benefit of having native speakers to practice with and also our work on country is closely tied to the seasonal cycles and culture expressed in language. I have learnt 3 other indigenous languages when living with bininj in the past but have no experience in the Arnhem region. In this first week I enjoyed many of the hyperlinks into the language databases, translating my skin name to a West Arnhem subsection which I think is Ngal bulanj and reading the LAAL book from Gunbalanya.

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Welcome Jane – hope quarantine is not too boring or frustrating for you.

      Great to hear that you bring experience of knowing other Indigenous languages, even though Kunwinjku is probably very different, I think it will help.

  9. Fay-J
    Fay-J says:

    Greetings from Hobart. I lived for many years in the Top End and worked in Kunbalarnja for a while in the 1990s. Then later through my husbands work we regularly visited the eastern end of the plateau. We still go most years even though we have been living in Tassie for 10 years now. We have names and relationships through a Kune speaking family. I have not worked out how my Kune skin name maps to the Kunwinjku names. I dont know how to spell them either. So learning some language is long overdue for me. I’m Karmin, my husband is Godjok and my daughter is Bulanjun.

  10. Zenobia-J
    Zenobia-J says:

    Greetings from Wollongong. I have recently started to collaborate with bininj in the Warddeken IPA. They have made me feel so welcome, but I feel that trying to speak their language will not only help our collaboration, but will also show respect. I am not great at languages and clearly have a hopeless grasp of English grammar, but I am here to give it a go! I have learnt heaps of new words already, or words that I have heard before and now know what they mean, so a great start. I have learnt that I don’t hear the sounds really well, so will need to listen to it repeatedly. Cheers Zenobia

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Zenobia,

      Yes, learning language is a great way to show respect, and I’ve found that Bininj are very gracious even if your pronunciation or grammar are not perfect. There’s lots of audio in this course, so you can listen over and over again.

  11. Charlotte-M
    Charlotte-M says:

    I’m Charlotte, I’m a primary teacher at Gunbalanya school and am excited to learn more of one of the languages my students and colleagues speak! Much of the first unit I already knew (my kids love teaching me the names of animals!) , but I did find it interesting to learn more about Aboriginal languages in general. I’m excited to learn more and practice it at school!
    Ma, bobo!

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Exciting to have someone from the school in the course, as your kids will be wonderful teachers!

      Might be fun to learn the kids’ skin names, and once we get into family terms, you can try to work out what you would call each one.

    • Melody-K
      Melody-K says:

      Hi Charlotte,

      I’m particularly interested in using Kunwinjku books and resources with children who have been in foster care and are trying to re-learn their first language. If you have any good resources that you have found to work really well with your students I’d love to talk more about it as we go through this course 🙂

  12. Georgina-H
    Georgina-H says:

    Hi team,

    I’m Georgie and I moved to Gunbalanya in Jan this year. I work at TeamHEALTH and have been adopted into Ngalkodjok skin group. This first unit was testing (grammer quiz) and exciting to get the language ball rolling.

    Can’t wait for more learning!

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Ngalkodjok, welcome to the course.

      When we originally talked to the language committee about this course, they were very keen for people from the health clinic to be involved, so they’ll be excited to have you involved.

      See if you can get hold of the book “Bininj Gunwok Talk about health: Medical terms and vocabulary for health professionals.” Edited by Murray Garde. Jabiru: Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation, 2010, which has loads of language relevant to your role.

  13. Lee-V
    Lee-V says:

    Hey everyone,

    My name is Lee, I work for Territory Families undertaking Child Protection work across the West Arnhem Region.

    It is such a difficult and confronting space for families to engage in and I am hoping that by learning to speak and understand even a few key phrases, we can undertake our work in a much more culturally safe and competent way to achieve some good outcomes for children and families.

    It’s great to see a few familiar names in this course and I’m looking forward to learning and practicing together.

    Mah, Bobo!


    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Lee,

      There’s a strong focus in this course about family connections, so learning some of that vocabulary and the kinship system should give you a clearer understanding about this important area.

      So pleased to see Territory Families supporting their staff to get involved in language learning!

  14. Anabell
    Anabell says:

    Hi Team,

    My Name is Anabell. I am originally from Germany.
    I live in Kakadu, Jabiru and work for Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation.
    The night before, I started my job I sat down and made sure I am able to write and spell the name of my Organization correctly.
    I am excited to learn a new language. This time not based on my native tongue, German as a basis.
    I personally understand Bininj with the issue of, speaking English as their second language and the frustration of sometimes missing words or phrases to bring thoughts to the very point.

    Happy days and Mah Bonj!

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Anabell,

      You’ll already have a headstart on many of us for having already learnt a language before.

      Writing and spelling are good, but remember to listen carefully so you learn the correspondence between sounds and letters which is different in Kunwinjku than in both German and English.

  15. Aara-W
    Aara-W says:

    Hi All,
    My name is Aara and I am from Wollongong. We have started to have conversations with Bininj in the Warddeken IPA. I have no previous language skills, but feel so privileged to be learning Bininj Kunwok.

    Mah, Bobo!


    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Aara,

      Great that you’ve already got people to practise with, even from thousands of kilometres away. It will really help you consolidate what you learn, as well as build relationships with your Bininj colleagues.

  16. Ben-L
    Ben-L says:

    Hi Team,

    My name is Ben. I live and work in Jabiru working in a partnership between The Outdoor Education Group and Gundjeihmi Aboriginal Corporation. I generally struggle with languages and am taking this course to help my interactions with the local community. I have enjoyed this first unit and have been reminded of how little I know about the structure of language.

    Looking forward learning everything I can here.


    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Welcome Ben – I get that many people struggle with languages, but remember that it’s all about relationships, not about knowledge. People often appreciate even small attempts to use their language, so don’t worry about trying to get it all right.

  17. Leigh-H
    Leigh-H says:

    Hey everyone!

    I’m Leigh, I live in Darwin and work as a nurse at Royal Darwin Hospital. I’m doing this course to better respect, understand and support patients and families I work with from the West Arnhem region. My partner (Nabulanj) lives and works in Jabiru, which means I visit pretty regularly (though the restrictions kept me out for 3 months :-/).
    I’ve learned so far that my knowledge of english grammar is not great, and didn’t know that in some situations clan affiliations can mean identifying as a speaker of an Aboriginal language may be more important than actually being able to understand/use the language in everyday life.
    Sorry I’m a bit tardy with my post. Looking forward to learning as much as I can!

    Mah, bobo!


    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Leigh,

      So good to have more health professionals involved – communication is such a key part of your role, and a little bit of language can go a long way!

      I’ve been listening to the new podcast ‘Ask the Specialist’ which is all about this area, with great advice.

  18. Tony-G
    Tony-G says:


    I am Tony. I live in Darwin. This is my fourth time living in the Top End.

    I am a balanda (white-fella) Uniting Church minister and I work at Nungalinya College as the Dean for Uniting Church and NRCC students.
    Our students come from over 70 different communities with some 50 or more languages spoken and we teach primarily in English.
    The students and communities I work with mostly are Yolngu from Eastern Arnhemland, Bininj/Ararrkbi from West Arnhemland and Anangu from Cerntral Australia (Pitjantjatjara). I am working on having some basic words and sentences as a way of showing respect and commitment to two-way learning.

    As a child I lived on Croker Island at Minjilang with Mawng (Maung), Iwaidja, Maarku and Kunwinjku speakers, as well as English.
    I am Nangarridj by way of my relationship with my Mawng gaiau (brother), deemed so because our father’s worked together for many years and became ‘brothers’. I came across some words this week that I knew from my childhood, but I could not have told you which language they were.
    It was like reconnecting with some long-lost friends. A joyful experience.

    Mah Yow

  19. Lauren-H
    Lauren-H says:

    Hi everyone,

    I’m relieved to read I’m not alone in feeling alarmed at my grasp of English grammar!
    My name is Lauren and I work for Marrawuddi/ Gundjeihmi in Jabiru. I’ve been here for two years, and prior to that I was at Injalak in Gunbalanya for two years. I’m looking forward to doing this course and building some confidence and capability in using Kunwinjku. I’ve picked up some words and a few phrases through my work with bininj but I feel like my learning stalled a while back. I’m looking forward to changing that.

    Mah, bobo

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Lauren,

      The first few units might be a bit easy for you, but the course should help you build on what you already know of Kunwinjku, and help you structure your knowledge and motivate you to use it more and learn even more. You’ve probably got lots of connections you can practise with, which will help a lot.

  20. Irene-O
    Irene-O says:

    My name is Irene. I work for One Disease. I’m excited to be embarking on this course and hoping to feel more confident in pronunciation of words and
    simple phrases after 6 weeks!

  21. Chris-C
    Chris-C says:

    Hi everyone,
    I’ve been working with Mirarr people and Gundjeihmi for a number of years, and I am now working with Njanmja Aboriginal Corporation and Warddeken IPA. I’ve been meaning to study Kunkwinjku for some time and this is a fabulous opportunity to learn to speak and understand a little more and hopefully converse a little with Bininj people in language. I am thrilled to be taking this course and I am already learning new words!

  22. Gregory-G
    Gregory-G says:

    Kamak. Kunngey Gregory Goodluck. I am Tony Goodluck’s brother and was made in Minjilang, but left when two years old, with mostly preverbal memories, but some memory pockets may emerge for me too – mainly from listening to stories from older siblings and parents. I worked at Nungalinya in community services training in orientation to mental health with Tiwi and Yolngu groups.
    My kinship is rather confused to me at present as I was adopted by Yolngu as Bulanj which I think translates to Nakangila. But i am also related to Minjilang in ways like Tony and maybe because I had a local nanny/carer there for me as a baby from a TO family. Needless to say this white reverse coconut Balana Minjilang Mario is a bit mixed up at times. Which might explain why I became a Social worker and then a psychologist who has been in private practice mainly counselling and assessing and report writing for over a decade after leaving Anglicare Resolve, having worked with Refugees after leaving Nungalinya. Before that I was a mental health clinical case manager in Adelaide, but always had an interest in community development and cultural staff. my practice paradigm is BioPsychoSocialCulturalSpiritual and my service is Goodluck Consultancies: Holistic Psychosocial Services.
    I am hoping to make some more friends, and cultural and professional connections to network our ngaddard (Father’s) book to screenplay and film with proper consultation and collaboration. It is called Back on Country (Knock Em Down Moon) and currently in discussion with Screen Territory about applying for Grant for Story Development. Kamak. Mah,
    i was surprised how well i did in English Grammar here and it seemed to evoke memories of year 9 Casuarina Highschool in Darwin. Which is wierd because in my usual memories and internal narrative about Cas I just thought we only ran amok and got chucked out of class alot – usually for talking, joking and playing with words.
    However, my short term memory is sievelike these days and I owe any success in using Bininj-Kunwok here to the App, which is slightly different to Kunwinku hey? and my Kunwinku gramma is probably right off so I am running on the theory that the most successful people are those who make the most mistakes but learn from them and keep trying.
    Mah. Bobo.

  23. Matilda-B
    Matilda-B says:

    Hi Everyone,

    I am Fay’s daughter. I am about to finish my nursing degree in Cairns. I am hoping to move back home to the NT next year to work. I am looking forward to building my skills and confidence in this course.


    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Matilda,
      So much of this course focuses on family relations, so you’ve got a headstart with family members also being part of the course! In unit 4 we get into talking about family members in some detail.

  24. Louise-W
    Louise-W says:

    Greetings…and Kamak!

    I am working in Kakadu for CDP ALPA and I am blessed to be joining this group, learning such an ancient language and hopefully expanding my brain cells/memory. I agree with everyone what a challenge to correctly remember English Grammar. I am going to prepare for some tongue twisters instead of worrying too much. I hopefully will practice with my cohorts in the area – with lots of help from Bininj who seem to encourage efforts to try no matter how bad it sounds. My skin name is Ngalkangilla – given to me by Murrumburr clan.

    I have joined a little late so I am reading and catching up! Thanks Cathy for your help!
    Mah boh boh

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Welcome Ngalkangila Louise (my yabok!)

      So glad you could join us, and already catching up with the unit. And it’s great that your Bininj colleagues are supportive of your efforts, I’m sure it will create much laughter (in a positive way!)


  25. Celeste-L
    Celeste-L says:

    Hi Everyone,

    My name is Celeste! I have worked out in Kakadu for around 2,1/2 years now with Parks Australia. I’ve been lucky to pick up small bits of language from Bininj/Munnguy that I work and collaborative with. Mostly the amazing Daluk have taught me names for animals and plants and a couple of greetings discussed here, but I have really wanted to be able to improve my conversation skills for a long time and just connect and understand the community around me. I think it’s so special to learn one of the oldest languages on earth! I’m really looking forward to this course 🙂

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Celeste,

      It’s fun to see how one of the oldest languages on earth has changed and adapted to contemporary ways of life. I hope this course gets you beyond basic greetings and names of things and builds your confidence with basic conversations.

  26. Melody-K
    Melody-K says:

    Hi everyone,

    I’m working for Territory Families in child protection, covering the West Arnhem Communities. I’ve started learning a few words here and there with the families that I work with. They speak so many distinct languages and I find that I get confused, blending and using different words from different languages in an effort to learn and to practice. I hope this course will help me clarify one language that many of my clients do speak.

    The families we work with are so gracious and patient, but I want to be able to show respect to their unique situations, languages and viewpoints. I think that being able to hear and distinguish between some of the different languages would be a small step in that direction.

    Previously I lived in East Arnhem for about 6 years, and I really enjoyed doing the Yolngu Matha course through CDU. Moving into the West Arnhem space I have been amazed by the fluency with which people can switch between the different languages that they speak.

    This week I was able to practice a little vocab during my visit to Maningrida with some Kunwinjku speakers, but I feel a long way off being able to string a sentence together and say it with confidence.

    Looking forward to learning as much as I can in this short window!

    ~ Melody

  27. Simon-C
    Simon-C says:

    Hi I’m Simon from Canberra. My contact with Bininj was through a scientific collaboration last year and I found them amazingly generous with their time and knowledge. It would be great to learn a few phrases to make the conversations freer. I’ve learnt a few languages over the years, but this will be my first attempt at a language from the Australian continent.

  28. Sophia-S
    Sophia-S says:

    Hi All – I’m a bit late on the uptake, but excited to learn more Kunwinjku. I started working at the Gunbalanya Health Centre in February, and would really like to be able to understand and use a bit of basic Kunwinjku with my patients and colleagues, and work out more about this amazing place I have landed in. I have a bit of a tin ear so have struggled so far, so nice to have this structure. In terms of exposures to Aboriginal languages, I grew up around a fair bit of Pitjantjatjara, and lived in NE Arnhem land for 9 months so know an embarrassingly small amount of Yolngu Mata, but really have never learned any language properly (including English!). In terms of this weeks leaning, I would echo what others said – I found the revision of English language grammar a really useful place to start. Ta! Looking forward to learning with you all. Here comes Georgie to keep me on track for Module 2 🙂

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Welcome Sophia – as I said to someone earlier, the BK Language committee were very keen for local Balanda to learn some Kunwinjku, and they particularly mentioned clinic staff, so it’s wonderful to have you along.

  29. Peter-C
    Peter-C says:

    Hi All,

    I am also working for TF in child protection, currently writing this from 8000ft on my way to a family meeting in Minjilang,
    I am definitely below novice when it comes to Aboriginal language, I am hoping the other languages help not hinder my learning (which the have hindered in the past)
    looking forward to be able to form some sentences and converse with family

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Peter,

      I’d like to think knowing other languages can help you learn a new one, but I do find that vocabulary from another language sometimes comes up in my brain before the vocab needed for the current language!

      Great that you have family to practise with, I’m sure they’ll appreciate it.

  30. Meg-S
    Meg-S says:

    Hi everyone,

    I have fallen a little behind on the course, but keen to catch up!

    I work in health- on a campaign to eliminate scabies across the Top End, and visit Maningrida, Gunbalanya & Kakadu here & there as part of this work.

    I was really interested in the skin names, and surprised to learn my boyfriends dog (who is from Gunbalanya) is named Nawakudj – a skin name!

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Meg,

      I met someone in Gunbalanya last year and introduced myself as Ngalkangila. She pointed to her dog and said ‘this is Ngalkangila too, she’s your sister’ which surprised me a bit! Apparently it’s quite common for pets, I guess they are considered family members!

  31. Jacqui-Y
    Jacqui-Y says:

    Hi Everyone,
    My name is Jacqui and I have recently joined the team at Kakadu National Park. I have previously lived and worked with Gurindji people and my Gurindji skin name is Nambin (Nampin/Nampajimpa). I haven’t yet worked out what my equivalent Kunwinjku name would be (if anyone is able to point me in the right direction I would be very grateful). I am excited to learn Kunwinjku that will help me better communicate with the Bininj/Mungguy in their own language, as so much is often lost in translation.

    I have chosen to use skin name Ngalbulanj in this course if I am unable to determine my Kunwinjku equivalent skin.

    Mah bonj

    • Cathy Bow
      Cathy Bow says:

      Hi Jacqui, I don’t know of any correspondences between Gurindji and Bininj names, but if you asked some Bininj they might be able to help you work it out – there might be correspondences through totems or other connections.

      Great to have you involved!

  32. Steve-B
    Steve-B says:

    Hi. My name’s Steve. I work for Kakadu National Park doing mapping and data related work. I sometimes work with Bininj and it would be great to be able to use some Bininj Kunwok when communicating with them. As language and culture are so closely interconnected, I also think this course will help me to learn more about Bininj culture. Looking forward to the course!

  33. Andrea-P
    Andrea-P says:

    I am Andrea and I was adopted as Ngalkangila during a year working in Gunbalanya. I am excited to be doing this Unit as a Cross-Institutional Grad Dip subject so it becomes part of my overall course.

    I am happy about how much language came back to me while working through Unit 1 and it was great to see the faces of people I know well as Kakkali, Karrang and Berlu.
    I am fascinated by languages am looking forward to pushing myself a little further with my Kunwinjku skills. I am nervous about the assessments though!

    Mah Bobo!

  34. Shay-J
    Shay-J says:

    Hi all,

    I am Shay and hastily catching up, from Victoria in the thick of everything going on!

    Lived in Darwin for 4 years and was to move back this year. Now postponed to next year. So so excited to be learning Kunwinjku and get a better understanding of the meaning of communication, knowledge and language. As a student feel like the most valuable contribution to the reconciliation effort is to develop more rounded knowledge.

    Thank you for welcoming us and really looking forward to this journey.

    Mah bobo

Leave a Reply

Want to join the discussion?
Feel free to contribute!

Leave a Reply